2023 Retirement Plan Limits Announced

The Internal Revenue Service announced new dollar limits for retirement plans for 2023, with most limits showing a sizeable increase over 2022 amounts. The new annual 401(k) elective deferral limit is $22,500 with a $7,500 catch up for those age 50 or older, permitting $30,000 to be contributed annually, or $5,000 per month. Plan sponsors should also note that the compensation threshold to determine highly compensated employees increases from $135,000, to $150,000, which is measured based on prior year’s compensation. The rest of the new limits are shown below:

The above information is a brief summary of legal developments that is provided for general guidance only and does not create an attorney-client relationship between the author and the reader. Readers are encouraged to seek individualized legal advice in regard to any particular factual situation. © 2022 Christine P. Roberts, all rights reserved.

Photo credit: Rodion Kutsaiev, Unsplash

Auto-Portability:  A Guide for Retirement Plan Sponsors

The following Q&A is geared for plan sponsors who are curious about the auto-portability process and how it might prove beneficial to their plan participants.  Auto-portability can prove especially useful in industries with lower wages and high employee turnover, which may include retail, transportation, hospitality, and restaurants, because this can often lead to numerous account balances of $5,000 or less being involuntarily rolled to default IRAs.  Note that SECURE 2.0 proposals could increase the involuntary cash-out threshold to $7,000, which could expand the potential market for auto-portability solutions.

    1. What is auto-portability?

    Auto-portability is a financial technology service that helps consolidate retirement savings accounts for individuals who have changed jobs, and who may have one or more default IRA accounts due to mandatory distribution of low-balance accounts in prior employers’ plans ($5,000 or less), or termination of their employer’s 401(k) plan. 

    2. How does auto-portability work?

      Industry leader Retirement Clearinghouse, LLC (RCH) devised a “locate, match, and transfer” process that coordinates among multiple recordkeeper systems to identify when an individual with a default IRA account has opened a new 401(k) account, and enable a “roll-in” of the IRA to the new employer’s plan.   Auto-portability can even be used by a plan to skip the default IRA step, and postpone distribution of small account balances until the former participant has established an account with a new employer’s plan.  Participant consent is requested at the time their default IRA account or small employer plan account balance is matched with an account under a new employer plan, and roll-in to the new plan becomes possible, but if consent is not provided within 30 days, a default roll-in transaction occurs.

      3. What problems does auto-portability help address?

      RCH flagged three main problems addressed by auto-portability, in a Question & Answer handout it prepared on the Portability Services Network.  [Sign up to obtain the Q&A here.]

      The first is cash out leakage, which is the phenomenon of workers cashing out small retirement account balances when they change jobs.  They cite Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) as estimating that of 14.8 million annual job transitions, 41%, or 6 million, will cash out of their retirement savings completely ($92.4 billion), with two-thirds of the cash outs being for reasons other than a financial emergency.  (This last detail strongly suggests that cash outs are taking place due to the inconvenience and the time required to process the transfer of a relatively small amount.)  The cash out percentage is higher – an estimated 55% – for participants with account balances under $5,000.  Research also points to cash out at the point of job transition as disproportionately impacting minority and low-income workers, thus undermining their ability to establish financial security for retirement. 

      Two other problems that can be addressed by auto-portability are the gradual erosion, through annual account fees and anemic money-market investment returns, of low-balance default IRA accounts, and missing participants.   Auto-portability reduces the first problem by moving money out of the low-balance IRA accounts to be consolidated with future savings under employer-sponsored plans.  Auto-portability reduces the prevalence of missing participants by tracking contact information established under a new employer’s plan, which is likely to be more accurate than old contact information maintained by prior employers.

      4. How does a plan sponsor connect with auto-portability services?

      RCH recently established a consortium with major 401(k) recordkeepers Alight, Fidelity and Vanguard, called the Portability Services Network (PSN).  PSN is expected to be up and running in the first quarter of 2023.  So if your plan uses one of those recordkeepers, auto-portability may be on offer to you in the new year.  The consortium is open to other recordkeepers joining as well.  Although RCH is currently the only direct provider of auto-portability services it is likely that there will be other providers offering these services in the future.  Finally, it is also possible for a plan to work directly with RCH, without going through its recordkeeper relationship, but this may be feasible only for fairly large plans.

      5. What do auto-portability services cost, and who pays for them?

      If you use the PSN consortium, there is no cost to plan sponsors.  Plan participants whose retirement accounts are transferred are charged a one-time transaction fee not exceeding $30.  Fees are disclosed in plan documentation, which will need to be amended to incorporate auto-portability language.  Other fees and disclosures apply if your plan contracts directly with RCH for auto-portability services.  The entry of other auto-portability service providers into the market to compete with RCH will hopefully result in lower transaction costs over time.

      6. Will my company have fiduciary liability in relation to auto-portability services?

      Yes, with respect to choosing to use auto-portability services and electing to work either directly with RCH or a similar vendor, or with the PSN consortium.  Specifically, you would be responsible for ensuring that the auto-portability service is a necessary service, a reasonable arrangement, and that it charges no more than reasonable compensation for the services provided.  You would need to monitor the arrangement and periodically ensure that your plan’s continued participation in the auto-portability program is consistent with ERISA’s standards.  However, your company will not have fiduciary liability with respect to the decision to transfer a default IRA or small balance account into your plan (roll-in).  In the absence of written consent from the account holder, fiduciary liability for that decision lies with RCH.  Your plan will have fiduciary responsibility with respect to determining whether the roll-in to your plan is consistent with plan terms, and in allocating the rolled-in assets to investments under your plan (unless a QDIA is in effect, or subject to ERISA Section 404(a) if the participant has made investment elections under the new plan).  The Department of Labor addressed these issues in Advisory Opinion 2018-01A, dated November 5, 2018.

      7. What else should I be aware of, on the auto-portability front?

      The Advancing Auto-Portability Act of 2022 is a bipartisan Senate bill sponsored by Senators Tim Scot (R-SC) and Sherrod Brown (D-OH) that would provide a $500 tax credit to employers who adopt auto-portability services, to help pay for the costs of implementation.  Representatives of the Department of Labor have also indicated that the Department is concerned about retirement account portability and cash-out leakage and recognize that auto-portability can helps preserve retirement security for many workers.  Thus, the problems that auto-portability is trying to address are apparent to members of Congress as well as to key personnel at the DOL, and plan sponsors should anticipate increased access to auto-portability in the future.

        The above information is a brief summary of legal developments that is provided for general guidance only and does not create an attorney-client relationship between the author and the reader. Readers are encouraged to seek individualized legal advice in regard to any particular factual situation. © 2022 Christine P. Roberts, all rights reserved.

        Photo credit:  Tima Miroshnichenko, Pexels

        The Dobbs Decision: Client Talking Points for Brokers and Advisors


        The decision of the United States Supreme Court on June 24, 2022 in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization means that, for the first time in almost 50 years, employers that sponsor group health plans are subject to state-level regulation of abortion access. Employers will naturally turn to their group health brokers and advisors for initial guidance. Below are some talking points for brokers and advisors, including tips on when legal guidance from ERISA counsel may be required.

        1. First, be aware that there will be no one-size-fits all approach. Each client’s path forward will vary depending upon whether their group health plan is self-insured, or insured, what states they operate and have employees in, and on whether they offer additional benefits such as health flexible spending accounts (health FSAs), health reimbursement arrangements (HRAs), or Health Savings Accounts (HSAs).
        2. With that in mind, you can start by cataloguing the plans each client has in place, and the states in which they have group health insurance policies in place and employ personnel. Remote work in the post-COVID environment may make it challenging to identify all states in which employees perform services for your client.
          a. If, for instance, a client has a fully insured group health plan under a policy issued in a state that has a trigger law, such as Kentucky, then abortions will likely become unavailable under the insured plan. (A discussion of state trigger laws prepared for the American Society for Reproductive Medicine is found here.) You will want to work with the carrier and the client to communicate potential changes to the policy and coverage around abortion services.
          b. If, for instance, your client has a self-insured group health plan, it is not directly impacted by state laws prohibiting abortion due to ERISA preemption. However, state criminal laws of general application are not preempted by ERISA. Employers with self-insured group health plans with employees in states that make abortion a crime may need to address potential liability and ERISA preemption issues with legal counsel.
        3. Medical travel benefits are trending as an area of interest for clients with insured plans in states that prohibit abortion, and for all clients with employees living in those states that may need to travel for abortion services. There are a variety of ways to provide medical travel benefits and a whole host of potential compliance issues that arise. You may not be in a position to advise on all of the issues, some of which cross over into legal advice, but you should be familiar with key points, as follows:
          a. Whether to offer the benefit pre-or post-tax – medical travel reimbursements are fairly limited under the tax code and fairly low dollar limits apply under health FSAs ($2,850) and Excepted Benefit HRAs ($1,800). An integrated HRA or a post-tax arrangement can be in an amount the employer chooses.
          b. ERISA compliance – a medical travel reimbursement arrangement will be subject to ERISA disclosure requirements and ERISA reporting requirements depending upon the number of participants eligible under the arrangement.
          c. Mental Health and Addiction Equity Act and HIPAA Privacy issues – if the arrangement covers medical travel only for abortion services, parity for mental health benefits is a problem. For this reason, it may be preferable to offer benefits for all types of medical travel. Processing reimbursements for such plans will involve review of protected health information and trigger HIPAA compliance if the arrangement covers 50 or more participants or is an arrangement of any size that is administered by a third party. For this latter reason some employers are offering generalized travel reimbursement plans that do not require proof of medical treatment. Note that such arrangements would not be subject to ERISA (and ERISA preemption would not apply to any aiding and abetting laws asserted against employers offering them). Such arrangements would also potentially trigger wide uptake among employees and considerable employer expense.
          d. Medical travel reimbursement arrangements will need to be coordinated with other arrangements such as health FSAs and eligibility under a medical travel arrangement will impact HSA eligibility. A careful survey of clients’ benefit landscape is necessary before implementing a medical travel reimbursement arrangement.
          e. States such as Texas and Oklahoma have laws that prohibit “aiding and abetting” abortion – including through provision of insurance and reimbursements – which could be directed at employers offering these benefits. Further, a group of Texas legislators (the “Texas Freedom Caucus”) has threatened criminal prosecution of at least one employer that offers travel benefits for those seeking abortion services. The ultimate enforceability of these provisions against employers will need to be determined through litigation, which may take years to unfold. In the meantime, clients contemplating medical travel benefits for abortion services will need competent legal counsel on potential liability and ERISA preemption issues that are raised.
        4. Be mindful of stop-loss coverage and the need to involve the stop-loss carrier in discussions of any change in self-insured plan design, around abortion services.
        5. Be aware that the compliance landscape is shifting constantly and that it is important to closely monitor your sources for benefits news. Even as this post was being finished, it was announced that the Dick’s Sporting Goods chain, which had offered a $4,000 travel benefit to employees seeking out-of-state abortions, was sued by “America First Legal,” a conservative group, on the grounds that the travel benefit violated Title VII of the Civil Rights Act by discriminating against female employees who choose to give birth. As many of the key issues in this area will be litigated, fast answers are not available. The safest strategy for the foreseeable future is to stay informed and proceed with caution. The above information is a brief summary of legal developments that is provided for general guidance only and does not create an attorney-client relationship between the author and the reader. Readers are encouraged to seek individualized legal advice in regard to any particular factual situation. © 2022 Christine P. Roberts, all rights reserved.

        Photo credit: Cody Engel, Unsplash

        Just Adopted a New 401(k) Plan?  Beware These Common Pitfalls

        By June 30, 2022, businesses with 5 or more California employees must either enroll in CalSavers, a state-managed system of Roth IRA accounts, or establish their exemption from CalSavers by adopting 401(k) or other retirement plans of their own.  Other states have implemented or are rolling out similar auto-IRA programs.  Below are some potential pitfalls for new plan adopters that business owners should be aware of, and, where possible, take steps to avoid. 

        1. Immediate top-heavy status.  The “top-heavy” rules compare the combined plan account balances of certain owners and officers, called “key employees,” with the plan account balances of all other plan participants (non-key employees).  If the key employee account balances make up 60% or more of the combined plan account balances of all participants, the plan is top-heavy and the plan sponsor is required to make minimum contributions (generally equal to 3% of compensation) to the accounts of all non-key employees.  A plan can be top-heavy in its first year of operation, although it is more commonly a result of large account balances accumulated over time by long-term key employees, versus smaller accounts held by high-turnover, lower paid employees.   Top-heavy status is particularly likely to arise in a family-owned business, as family members of owners count as key employees, but the problem is not limited to this scenario.  Businesses that anticipate a potential top-heavy problem should consider adopting safe-harbor 401(k) plan designs, as a basic safe-harbor matching or non-elective contribution will satisfy minimum top-heavy contribution requirements.  A SIMPLE-IRA plan is also exempt from top-heavy requirements, provided you have 100 or fewer employees.
        2. ADP/ACP testing failure.     A similar and more common problem, failure of the Actual Deferral Percentage or ADP test, occurs when the average rate of elective deferrals made by Highly Compensated Employees exceeds the average rate of elective deferrals made by non-Highly Compensated Employees by more than a permitted amount.  (A related test, the Actual Contribution Percentage test, applies to matching contributions.)  Highly Compensated Employees (HCEs) are persons who own more than 5% of the company sponsoring the plan at any time during the current or prior year, or who, for the prior year, earned above a set dollar amount.  (For 2022, the amount is $135,000 and applies to 2021 earnings.)  Correcting testing failures will involve refunding amounts to HCEs, or making additional contributions to non-HCEs.  Fortunately there are a number of preventive measures to take, including using a safe harbor contribution formula, using a “top 20%” election to define HCEs, using automatic enrollment at a meaningful percentage of compensation (such as 5% or higher), and robust enrollment meetings and tools to engage employees with savings potentials under the plan. 
        3. Late deposit of elective deferrals.  When you run payroll and pull employee elective deferrals from pay, you have a deadline within which to invest them under your 401(k) plan, which is the point at which they are considered to be “plan assets” under ERISA.  Investment is generally is denoted as a “trade date” by your plan’s recordkeeper, whether Fidelity, Vanguard, or the like.   If you have under 100 participants as of the beginning of your plan year (counting those who are eligible to participate even if they don’t actively do so) you have seven business days to get from pay date, to trade date.  For larger plans, the normal deadline to invest is as soon as elective deferrals can reasonably be segregated from your general assets.  (An outside deadline of 15 business days after the end of the month following the month in which the elective deferrals would have been payable in cash applies in the event of extraordinary circumstances interrupting normal payroll functioning.)  If you fail to meet the seven business-day or “as soon as” deposit deadline, your retention of employee funds constitutes a “prohibited transaction” and an excise tax is payable to the IRS. Additionally, the Department of Labor views it as a fiduciary breach.  It is possible to seek relief from the excise tax and from potential fiduciary liability by participating in the Department of Labor’s Voluntary Fiduciary Compliance Program or VFCP.  Late deposits of employee elective deferrals (and loan repayments) must be disclosed each year on your Form 5500 Return/Report, which in turn could trigger further inquiry, so compliance with your applicable deposit deadline is important.
        4. Plan audit requirementAs we covered in an earlier post, a business sponsoring a brand new 401(k) plan may be required to obtain an audit report on the plan’s operations and finances, prepared by an independent qualified public accountant or IQPA, at an annual expense of $5,000 – $15,000 or more.  These reports generally are required for plans with 100 or more participants as of the first day of the plan year, counting those who are eligible to participate whether or not they actually do so.  Proposed regulations for Form 5500 might change that rule, to count only those with plan account balances, but they have yet to be finalized and put into effect.  Until that time, businesses sponsoring new plans that will cover 100 or more eligible participants need to prepare for the audit process, both in terms of budgeting dollars for the cost, and time to gather responses to the auditor’s questionnaires.  New auditing standards going into effect this year put increased responsibilities on plan sponsors to account for plan operations and documentation.

        The above information is a brief summary of legal developments that is provided for general guidance only and does not create an attorney-client relationship between the author and the reader. Readers are encouraged to seek individualized legal advice in regard to any particular factual situation. © 2022 Christine P. Roberts, all rights reserved.

        Photo credit:  Goh Rhy Yan, Unsplash

        How to Prepare Business Owners for the Approaching CalSavers Deadline

        CalSavers is a state-run retirement program that applies to employers who do not already sponsor their own retirement plan.  It automatically enrolls eligible employees in a state-managed system of Roth IRA accounts. It has been in place since September 30, 2020 for employers with more than 100 employees and since June 30, 2021 for employers with more than 50 employees.  On June 31, 2022, it goes into effect for employers with 5 or more employees.  Below we cover key aspects of the CalSavers program, focusing on the types of issues that California business owners might bring to their benefits advisor for further clarification. A version of this post was published in the March 2022 issue of Santa Barbara Lawyer magazine.

        Q.1:  What is CalSavers?

        A.1:  CalSavers is the byproduct of California Senate Bill 1234, which Governor Brown signed into law in 2016. It is codified in Title 21 of the California Government Code and in applicable regulations. It creates a state board tasked with developing a workplace retirement savings program for private for-profit and non-profit employers with at least 5 employees that do not sponsor their own retirement plans (“Eligible Employers”).  Specifically, CalSavers calls for employees aged at least 18, and who receive a Form W-2 from an eligible employer, to be automatically enrolled in the CalSavers program after a 30-day period, during which they may either opt out, or customize their contribution level and investment choices.   The default is an employee contribution of 5% of their wages subject to income tax withholding, automatically increasing each year by 1% to a maximum contribution level of 8%. Employer contributions currently are prohibited, but they may be allowed at a later date.

        Q.2:  If a business wants to comply with CalSavers, what does it need to do?

        A.2:  The steps are as follows:

        • Prior to their mandatory participation date – which as mentioned is June 30, 2022 for employers with 5 or more employees, Eligible Employers will receive a notice from the CalSavers program containing an access code, and a written notice that may be forwarded to employees. Eligible Employers must log on to the CalSavers site to either register online, or certify their exemption from Calsavers by stating that their business already maintains a retirement plan. The link to do so is here. To do either, the employer will need its federal Employer Identification Number or Tax Identification Number, as well as the access code provided in the CalSavers notice. 
        • Eligible Employers who enroll in CalSavers will provide some basic employee roster information to CalSavers. CalSavers will then contact employees directly to notify them of the program and to instruct them about how to enroll or opt-out online. Those who enroll will have an online account which they can access in order to change their contribution levels or investment selections.
        • Once an Eligible Employer has enrolled in CalSavers, their subsequent obligations are limited to deducting and remitting each enrolled employee’s contributions each pay period, and to adding new eligible employees within 30 days of hire (or of attaining eligibility by turning age 18, if later).
        • Eligible Employers may delegate their third-party payroll provider to fulfill these functions, if the payroll provider agrees and is equipped to do so.  CalSavers provides information on adding payroll representatives once a business registers.

        Q.3:  How does a business prove it is exempt from CalSavers?

        A.3:  There are several steps:

        • First, it must have a retirement plan in place as of the mandatory participation date.  This may mean a 401(k) plan, a 403(b) plan, a SEP or SIMPLE plan, or a multiple employer (union) plan. 
        • Employers with plans in place must still register with CalSavers to certify their exemption.  The link is at https://employer.calsavers.com (Select “I need to exempt my business” from the pull-down menu.)  They will need their federal Employer Identification Number or Tax Identification Number and an access code that is provided on a notice they should have received from CalSavers.  If they can’t find their notice, they can call (855) 650-6916.  

        Q.4:     How does a business count employees, for the 5 or more threshold?

        A.4: To count employees for purposes of the 5 or more threshold, a business takes the average number of employees that it reported to the California Environmental Development Department (EDD) for the previous calendar year.  This is done by counting the employees reported to the EDD on Form DE 9C, “Quarterly Contribution Return and Report of Wages (Continuation)” for the quarter ending December 31 and the previous three quarters, counting full- and part-time employees.   So, for example, if a business reported over 5 employees to EDD for the quarter ending December 31, 2021 and the previous three quarters, combined, and it did not maintain a retirement plan, it would need to register with CalSavers by June 30, 2022.  If a business uses staffing agencies or a payroll company, or a professional employer organization, this will impact its employee headcount. The business should seek legal counsel as the applicable regulations are somewhat complex.

        Q.5: What are the consequences of noncompliance with CalSavers requirements?

        A.5:  There are monetary penalties for noncompliance, imposed on the Eligible Employer by CalSavers working together with the Franchise Tax Board. The penalty is $250 per eligible employee for failure to comply after 90 days of receiving the CalSavers notification, and $500 per eligible employee if noncompliance extends to 180 days or more after the notice.  CalSavers has begun enforcing compliance with the program in early 2022, for employers with more than 100 employees who were required to enroll by the September 30, 2020 deadline.   

        Q.6:  Are there any legal challenges to CalSavers?

        A.6:  Yes, but the main suit challenging the program has exhausted all appeals, without success. A bit of background information is necessary to understand the legal challenge to CalSavers. The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) generally preempts state laws relating to benefits, but a Department of Labor “safe harbor” dating back to 1975 excludes from the definition of an ERISA plan certain “completely voluntary” programs with limited employer involvement. 29 C.F.R. § 2510.3-2(d).  The Obama administration finalized regulations in 2016 that would have expressly classified state programs like CalSavers, as exempt from ERISA coverage, and thus permissible for states to impose. However, Congress passed legislation in 2017 that repealed those regulations, such that the 1975 safe harbor remains applicable. Arguing that the autoenrollment feature of CalSavers program makes CalSavers not completely voluntary and thus takes it out of the 1975 regulatory safe harbor, a California taxpayer association argued that ERISA preempts CalSavers.   On March 29, 2019, a federal court judge concluded that ERISA did not prevent operation of the CalSavers program, because the program only applies to employers who do not have retirement plans governed by ERISA.  The Ninth Circuit affirmed.  In late February 2022, the Supreme Court of the United States declined to review the case. Meanwhile, state-operated IRA savings programs are underway in a number of other states, including Oregon, Illinois and New York, and in the formation stages in yet others. 

        Q.7:  Does CalSavers apply to out-of-state employers? 

        A.7:  It can.  An employer’s eligibility is based on the number of California employees it employs, as reported to EDD. Eligible employees are any individuals who have the status of an employee under California law, who receive wages subject to California taxes, and who are at least 18 years old. If an out-of-state employer has more than 5 employees meeting that description, as measured in the manner described in Q&A 4, then as of June 30, 2022 it would need to either sponsor a retirement plan, or register for CalSavers.

        Q.8.  Does CalSavers apply to businesses located in California, with workers who perform services out of state? 

        A.8:  Yes, if the employer is not otherwise exempt, and if they have a sufficient number of employees who have the status of an employee under California law, who receive wages subject to California taxes, and who are at least 18 years old.

        Q.9: Can an employer be held liable over the costs, or outcome of CalSavers investments?

        A.9:  No.  Eligible Employers concerned about lawsuits should be aware that they are shielded from fiduciary liability to employees that might otherwise arise regarding investment performance or other aspects of participation in the CalSavers program.  In that regard, the CalSavers Program Disclosure Booklet, available online, goes into significant detail about the way CalSavers contributions will be invested; notably the cost of these investments (consisting of an underlying fund fee, a state fee, and a program administration fee).

        Q.10:  Can an employer share its opinions about CalSavers, to employees?

        A.10.  Not really.  Eligible Employers must remain neutral about the CalSavers program and may not encourage employees to participate, or discourage them from doing so. They should refer employees with questions about CalSavers to the CalSavers website or to Client Services at 855-650-6918 or clientservices@calsavers.com.

        The above information is a brief summary of legal developments that is provided for general guidance only and does not create an attorney-client relationship between the author and the reader. Readers are encouraged to seek individualized legal advice in regard to any particular factual situation. © 2022 Christine P. Roberts, all rights reserved.

        Five Fast Facts About Reproductive Health Benefits

        Employers are increasingly looking to offer employees assistance in starting and adding to their families, which in a growing number of cases involves dealing with infertility treatments and other reproductive health issues.   Below are five fast facts about this trending employment benefit.

        1. Reproductive health benefits are increasingly in demand.  According to a survey by the International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans, summarized here, 24% of employers surveyed covered the cost of in vitro fertilization benefits in 2020, up from 13% in 2016.  Similar or greater increases in coverage were seen across other categories, including fertility medications, visits with genetic counselors and surrogacy advisors, genetic testing, non-IVF fertility treatments, and egg harvesting and freezing services (coverage of which jumped from 2% in 2016 to 10% in 2020). 
        2. Only some reproductive health benefits are likely to qualify as medical expenses under a health FSA or HRA.  Such expenses must be incurred “for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, or for the purpose of affecting any structure or function of the body [of the employee, the employee’s spouse, or the employee’s dependent.]”  IRS Publication 502, Medical and Dental expenses, mentions only in vitro fertilization, including temporary storage of eggs or sperm, and surgery to reverse procedures to prevent conception, as qualifying medical expenses.  With regard to other reproductive health measures, such as surrogacy expenses, egg donation and the like, we have only private letter rulings or other IRS guidance that is specific to the taxpayers who seek an opinion and may not be relied upon by other tax payers.  As a consequence, a comprehensive reproductive health benefit plan may have to comprise a blend of pre-tax and after-tax benefits.
        3. State laws may apply, especially with regard to surrogacy benefits.  Some states, including New York, prohibit certain types of gestational surrogacy contracts, whereas other states permit them subject to certain conditions.  This article provides a survey of state laws as of early 2020.  Employers with operations in multiple states will want to proceed cautiously in designing their reproductive health benefits so as not to offer benefits that are prohibited or restricted under state laws.
        4. A number of vendors have cropped up in this space as a consequence of the complexity around the federal tax and state law issues.  Services they offer include integration with insurance carriers, care navigation, and coaching. Some of the leading reproductive health benefit vendors include the following:
        5. Retirement plans are getting into the game.  Effective as of last year, the SECURE Act permits 401(k) plans to offer “qualified birth or adoption distributions” of up to $5,000 person, to cover expenses incurred in childbirth or adoption, that are subject to income taxes but exempt from the 10% early distribution tax under Code Section 72(t).  More information on these distributions can be found in our earlier post on this topic.  Adding this distribution feature can help support an employer’s overall reproductive health benefit offerings.

        The above information is a brief summary of legal developments that is provided for general guidance only and does not create an attorney-client relationship between the author and the reader. Readers are encouraged to seek individualized legal advice in regard to any particular factual situation. © 2022 Christine P. Roberts, all rights reserved.

        Photo credit:  Garret Jackson, Unsplash

        In A Competitive Job Market, Helping With Student Loan Payments May Give Your Business the Edge

        Through 2025, businesses have the opportunity to help employees pay off up to $5,250 in student loans each year ($21,000 total), through adoption of a simple written reimbursement program.  If structured properly, the assistance is deductible by the employer and excluded from employees’ taxable income.

        This is thanks to one of the lesser known provisions of the CARES Act of 2020, which expended the use of the existing Internal Revenue Code Section 127 for tuition reimbursement programs, to permit repayments of principal or interest on an eligible employee’s “qualified education loan,” as defined under 26 U.S.C. 221(d).  This generally refers to debt incurred for eduction leading “to a degree, certificate, or other education credential” from an “eligible educational institution,” which is widely defined to include any accredited public, non-profit or privately owned for-profit college, university, trade school, or other post-secondary educational institution.  The CARES Act provision was meant to expire in 2021 but was extended, through December 31, 2025, under the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021.  As mentioned, the annual limit on tuition assistance, and by extension on student loan repayment assistance, is $5,250, but if a reimbursement plan is put into place in 2022 and used each year to the maximum limit, a participating employee can chop up to $21,000 off of existing student debt. 

        For employers looking to put a student loan reimbursement plan in place, or amend an existing tuition reimbursement plan to add a student loan feature, there are a few rules to keep in mind.

        1. The $5,250 annual limit applies to both student loan repayments, and tuition reimbursement.  Therefore, an employee who is paying off qualified education loans while incurring new tuition expenses would have to allocate the $5,250 annual budget between the two expense categories.  No double dipping.
        2. You need a written plan document.  This is a requirement of Section 127.  It needs to spell out who is eligible to receive benefits (note that nondiscrimination rules apply), whether tuition reimbursement or student loan repayments, or both, are offered, the annual dollar limit (whether $5,250, or a lower amount), and any applicable limitations on benefits.  In this regard, some plans require repayment of benefits if employees leave employment within one year after receiving tuition or loan repayment assistance.  
        3. The assistance must be fully employer-funded and may not be offered as an alternative to employees’ existing or additional cash compensation.
        4. You must substantiate proper use of the funds for permitted tuition or student loan repayments.  Substantiation is required whether employers pay student loans directly to vendors (or pay educators directly for tuition) or reimburse employees for payments they incur.

        Making your company stand out with a valuable benefit offering may help it attract and retain employees in today’s tight job market.  For more information on student loan reimbursement plans, visit our prior post on this topic.  And if you need help adding or amending a reimbursement program for 2022 to permit student loan repayments, use EforERISA’s contact form or reach out at croberts@mullenlaw.com.

        The above information is a brief summary of legal developments that is provided for general guidance only and does not create an attorney-client relationship between the author and the reader. Readers are encouraged to seek individualized legal advice in regard to any particular factual situation. © 2021 Christine P. Roberts, all rights reserved.

        Photo credit: Standsome Worklifestyle, Unsplash

        Five Good Reasons to Correct Retirement Plan Errors

        If your business sponsors a Section 401(k) or other retirement plan, it is governed by a lengthy plan document, often a separate trust agreement or custodial account agreement, and multiple other documents (salary deferral agreements, loan policy statement, investment policy statement, etc.)  Not surprisingly, most plan sponsors get something wrong somewhere along the way, whether with respect to the plan document, or operation of the plan.  Below are five reasons why taking prompt action to correct plan errors is in the best interests of your business, and your employees.   

        1. To preserve the tax-qualified status of your plan.

        Contributions to your plan are deductible to your business and excluded from your employees’ taxable compensation (i.e., are “tax-qualified”) because the plan document, and operation of the plan, conform to certain requirements under the Internal Revenue Code.  Under the Employee Plans Compliance Resolution System or EPCRS, the Internal Revenue Service permits plan sponsors to voluntarily correct a wide range of errors that, if left uncorrected, could result in a loss of the plan’s tax-qualified status and subject plan assets to taxation.   There are costs associated with participating in the EPCRS, including amounts that may be owed to the plan, attorneys’ fees, and program fees, but they are usually only a fraction of the potential expense of plan disqualification. 

        1. To correct prohibited transactions.

        While the IRS monitors the tax-advantaged status of benefit plans, the Department of Labor policies the actions of plan fiduciaries, both with respect to plan assets, and in fulfilling reporting and disclosure duties.  When salary deferrals and loan repayments are withheld from employees’ pay and not promptly deposited in the plan’s trust account, the Department of Labor essentially views this as an interest free loan, by the employer, of employee money.  Technically speaking, it is a “prohibited transaction” that requires correction under the DOL’s Voluntary Fiduciary Correction Program.  Uncorrected prohibited transactions, if discovered on audit, can result in civil monetary penalties to the fiduciaries, and also triggers excise taxes payable to the Internal Revenue Service.  Prohibited transactions also must be disclosed on the annual Form 5500 Return/Report, potentially alerting the Department of Labor to initiate further inquiry or audit.  Timely participation in VFCP eliminates the fiduciary penalties and offers alternatives to payment of the excise taxes in some circumstances (e.g., if the same amount is paid to the plan). 

        1. To minimize penalties in the event of a plan audit.

        The IRS, on audit, may assess penalties for uncorrected errors in plan documentation and operation, that can reach many thousands of dollars, on top of the amounts owed to the plan in order to correct operational errors.  And, as mentioned, prohibited transactions trigger potential civil monetary penalties.  Participation in IRS and DOL voluntary correction programs protects plan sponsors from these potential large assessments.  Whatever the cost of taking part in the voluntary program, whether it be costs of corrective contributions and earnings, attorneys fees, and the program fee, it is a quantifiable cost and one that is much smaller than the cost of correcting under the supervision of the IRS or DOL.

        1. To ensure the saleability of your business.

        Plan sponsors sometimes think that their uncorrected plan errors are only at risk of discovery if they are audited, and point to low levels of IRS and DOL audit activity as proof that they can safely play “audit roulette.”  However they are forgetting that, if they want to sell their business – particularly stock sales – or merge with another business, the due diligence process preceding the transaction will likely require them to identify any errors in plan documentation or operation within a 3 year or longer period.  An unresolved plan error could derail the transaction, or at best require correction under terms and conditions that are not as favorable, to the plan sponsor, as self-correction would have been.  If you envision your business as a purchase target or merger partner in the future you owe it to yourself to make sure that plan errors are corrected promptly and in advance of any due diligence inquiries. 

        1. Because it’s the right thing to do.

        Your retirement plan document is a contract you have entered into for the benefit of plan participants and beneficiaries and you should take it as seriously as any contract you enter into with a third party.  It spells out the right way to do things, for the most part, and the IRS and DOL self-correction programs are there to minimize the downside when plan documentation or operation falls short of perfection.  Whether your goal is to sell your business without a hitch, or glide through an IRS or DOL audit with a minimum of fuss, fixing plan errors promptly is the right choice every time.

        The above information is a brief summary of legal issues that is provided for general guidance only and does not create an attorney-client relationship between the author and the reader. Readers are encouraged to seek individualized legal advice in regard to any particular factual situation. © 2021 Christine P. Roberts, all rights reserved.

        Photo credit:  Sasun Bughdaryan, Unsplash

        When is a 401(k) Not a Retirement Plan?                 

        Short answer – a 401(k) plan is not a “retirement plan” for California creditor protection purposes when it was expressly set up to protect IRA rollover assets from creditors. This was the holding in a 2019 California Court of Appeal decision that is still valid law and that is worth revisiting: O’Brien v. AMBS Diagnostics, LLC, 38 Cal. App. 5th 553, 562 (2019), rev. den. 2019 Cal. LEXIS 8003 (October 23, 2019)

        Mr. O’Brien got into a legal dispute with his former business partners in AMBS Diagnostics, LLC (AMBS) and lost at trial, resulting in a judgment against him for over $600,000.  AMBS sought to collect on its judgment and filed notices of levy against Mr. O’Brien’s assets, including four IRA accounts then valued at $465,350.  (There was no dispute that the IRA funds had originally been set aside for retirement purposes.)  The court ordered an assessment of what portion of the funds in O’Brien’s IRAs were necessary for his support in retirement and what portion could be used to satisfy the judgment.

        This is because, under California Code of Civil Procedure (C.C.P.) § 704.115(a)(3), IRA funds, and funds held in self-employed retirement plans, are exempt from creditors “only to the extent necessary to provide for the support of the judgment debtor,” and their spouse and dependents, upon retirement. This is to be distinguished from protection from bankruptcy creditors, which is governed by federal law (and which exempts up to $1 million, indexed for inflation), and is further to be distinguished from protection of assets held in “[p]rivate retirement plans” that are “established or maintained by private employers or employee organizations, such as unions,” including “closely held corporations.”  Assets held in this fashion are fully protected from creditors under C.C.P. § 704.115(b).  The I.R.S. generally can invade such assets pursuant to a federal tax lien, but that was not at issue in the O’Brien case. 

        Mr. O’Brien was aware of the different degree of creditor protection under California law, accorded to IRAs versus employer-sponsored retirement plans.  Accordingly, within 18 days the court order to assess the IRA assets for necessity in retirement, Mr. O’Brien set up a limited liability company and formed a 401(k) plan for the LLC.  He then rolled over his IRA assets to the newly-established 401(k) plan, and then dissolved the LLC.  He also somehow got on the record as admitting that he took these actions to protect his IRA assets from his creditors. AMBS sought to levy funds from the new 401(k) plan but the trial court sided with O’Brien, holding that the funds were fully exempt as held in a “retirement plan” notwithstanding the plan’s recent vintage.

        The Court of Appeal reversed on the grounds, in part, that the full exemption available to a retirement plan rests on the assumption that the plan holding the funds was principally or primarily designed and used for retirement purposes, and in light of Mr. O’Brien’s admission the LLC’s plan simply did not meet that standard. “O’Brien freely admitted his subjective intent for creating the 401(k) plan and in transferring the funds . . . ‘[T]he shielding and hiding of assets from creditors is clearly not a “use for retirement purposes.”’”  38 Cal. App. 5th at 562, citing In re Daniel, 771 F.2d 1352, 1358 (9th Cir. 1985), In re Dudley, 249 F.3d 1170, 1177 (9th Cir. 2001), In re Bloom, 839 F.2d 1376, 1378 (9th Cir. 1988).  The court concluded that the 401(k) funds were still subject to the more limited, “as necessary for retirement” protection available to IRA assets and sent the matter back to the trial court for assessment of the funds against that standard, as originally had been intended.  Interestingly, in reaching this conclusion the court favorably cited an earlier decision, McMullen v. Haycock, 147 Cal. App. 4th 753, 755-756 (2007), in which funds in a retirement plan account were held to have kept their higher level of protection against creditors after having been rolled to an IRA.  This “tracing rule” remains citable legal authority in California although it is somewhat at odds with the language of C.C.P. § 704.115(a)(3). 

        Would the outcome in the case have been different had O’Brien not been so bold about stating his intentions?  Probably not, though he certainly did not help himself.  The timing of the LLC and plan setup were damning enough in themselves, and it would appear from the opinion that the rollovers were made in violation of the 401(k) plan terms (AMBS alleged that “O’Brien’s purported rollover of funds was invalid because he did not meet the qualifications set forth in the 401(k) plan itself for such a rollover.”)  58 Cal. App. 5th at 558.

        Clearly, a poor plan, poorly executed, and an object lesson that creditor protection of retirement plan assets will be based on all the relevant facts and circumstances, not just the name on the account.

        The above information is a brief summary of legal developments that is provided for general guidance only and does not create an attorney-client relationship between the author and the reader. Readers are encouraged to seek individualized legal advice in regard to any particular factual situation. © 2021 Christine P. Roberts, all rights reserved.

        Photo credit: Sasun Bughdaryan, Unsplash

        IRS Announces 2022 Retirement Plan Limits

        On November 4, 2021, the IRS announced 2022 cost-of-living adjustments for annual contribution and other dollar limits affecting 401(k) and other retirement plans.  The maximum annual limit on salary deferral contributions to 401(k), 403(b), and 457(b) plans increased $1,000 to $20,500, but the catch-up contribution limit for employees aged 50 and older stayed the same at $6,500.  That raises the total deferral limit for a participant aged 50 or older to $27,000.  The Section 415(c) dollar limit for annual additions to a retirement account was increased to $61,000 from $58,000, and the $6,500 catch-up limit increases that to $67,500 for participants aged 50 or older.   In addition, the maximum limit on annual compensation under Section 401(a)(17) increased to $305,000 from $290,000, and the compensation threshold for Highly Compensated Employees increased to $135,000, from $130,000.  Other dollar limits that increased for 2021 are summarized below; citations are to the Internal Revenue Code.  Unchanged were the annual deductible IRA contribution and age 50 catch-up limit ($6,000 and $1,000, respectively), and the age 50 SIMPLE catch-up limit of $3,000.  In a separate announcement, the Social Security Taxable Wage Base for 2022 increased to $147,000 from the prior limit of $142,800 in 2021.

        Photo credit: Atturi Jalli, Unsplash.